la pizza fa bene ? facciamo chiarezza su digeribilità e calorie (ed altro)


Il mio alter ego oggi  è impegnato a ragionar di pizza a Pietrasanta.
Ne approfitto per pubblicare un po’ di dati, grezzi, che approfondirò in seguito.
Di pizza, talora, si parla un po’ a sprosito citando digeribilità fantomatiche e proprietà salvifiche che non trovano, poi, fondamento nell’analisi scientifica (a occhio: c’è molto da approfondire, per chi ne ha voglia).
Sull’argomento ho pubblicato vari altri articoli, li trovate qui.

Powell LM et al
Energy and nutrient intake from pizza in the United States.
For children and adolescents, respectively, pizza consumption was significantly associated with higher net daily TEI (84 kcal and 230 kcal) and higher intakes of saturated fat (3 g and 5 g) and sodium (134 mg and 484 mg) but not sugar intake, and such affects generally did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Pizza consumption as a snack or from fast-food restaurants had the greatest adverse impact on TEI. The adverse dietary effects of pizza consumption found in this study suggest that its consumption should be curbed and its nutrient content improved.
Pediatrics. 2015 Feb;135(2):322-30. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1844. Epub 2015 Jan 19.

Combet E et al
Development of a nutritionally balanced pizza as a functional meal designed to meet published dietary guidelines.
Most commercial pizzas provide insufficient information to assess all nutrients and traditional Margherita pizza ingredients provide insufficient Fe, Zn, iodine, and vitamins C and B12. Energy content of the portions currently sold as standard range from 837 to 2351 kJ (200 to 562 kcal), and most exceed 30 % Guideline Daily Amounts for saturated fat and Na when a 2510 kJ (600 kcal) notional meal is considered. The ‘nutritionally balanced pizza’ provides the required energy for a single-item meal (2510 kJ/600 kcal), with all nutrients within recommended ranges: Na (473 mg, ∼45 % below recommended level), saturated fat (<11 % energy) and dietary fibre (13·7 g).
Public Health Nutr. 2014 Nov;17(11):2577-86. doi: 10.1017/S1368980013002814. Epub 2013 Oct 28.

Mueller et al
Applicability of salt reduction strategies in pizza crust.
In an effort to reduce population-wide sodium intake from processed foods, due to major health concerns, several different strategies for sodium reduction in pizza crust without any topping were evaluated by sensory analyses. It was possible to reduce sodium by 10% in one single step or to replace 30% of NaCl by KCl without a noticeable loss of salty taste. The late addition of coarse-grained NaCl (crystal size: 0.4-1.4 mm) to pizza dough led to an enhancement of saltiness through taste contrast and an accelerated sodium delivery measured in the mouth and in a model mastication simulator. Likewise, the application of an aqueous salt solution to one side of the pizza crust led to an enhancement of saltiness perception through faster sodium availability, leading to a greater contrast in sodium concentration. Each of these two strategies allowed a sodium reduction of up to 25% while maintaining taste quality.
Food Chem. 2016 Feb 1;192:1116-23. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.07.066. Epub 2015 Jul 17.

Gallus S et al
Does pizza protect against cancer?
We analyzed the potential role of pizza on cancer risk: oral cavity and pharynx (598 cases), esophagus (304 cases), larynx (460 cases), colon (1,225 cases) and rectum (728 cases).
Pizza appears therefore to be a favorable indicator of risk for digestive tract neoplasms in this population.
Int J Cancer. 2003 Nov 1;107(2):283-4.

Gallus S et al
Pizza consumption and the risk of breast, ovarian and prostate cancer.
Pizza has been favourably related to the risk of prostate cancer in North America. Our results do not show a relevant role of pizza on the risk of sex hormone-related cancers. The difference with selected studies from North America suggests that dietary and lifestyle correlates of pizza eating vary between different populations and social groups.
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2006 Feb;15(1):74-6.Abstract

Tritt A et al
Reformulation of pizza crust in restaurants may increase whole-grain intake among children.
Whole-grain intake among children is well below recommendations. The purpose of the present study was to test the acceptability and liking of pizza made with whole-grain crust compared with refined-grain crust among children in restaurant and school settings. Children consumed as much of the pizza made with whole-grain crust (42·1 %) as the pizza made with refined-grain crust (44·6 %; P=0·55), based on an average serving size of 350-400 g. Liking ratings for both types of pizza were high (>4·5 of 5) and did not differ by crust type (P=0·47). These positive consumption and liking outcomes indicate that whole-grain pizza crust is well accepted among children in a restaurant setting. The impact on whole-grain intake could be substantial if large, national restaurant chains served pizza made with whole-grain crust.
Public Health Nutr. 2015 Jun;18(8):1407-11. doi: 10.1017/S1368980014001724. Epub 2014 Aug 26.

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